Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest By Mark Sulc and Rory Lewandowski, CCA, Ohio State University ExtensionThe best time to take a last harvest of forages is this week and next in Ohio, for the least risk to the long-term health of the stand. This is especially true for alfalfa and other legumes that need the fall period to replenish carbohydrate and protein reserves in the taproots that are used for winter survival and regrowth next spring. This fall rest period is particularly important this year, because our surviving stands have suffered a great deal of wet soil stress this year. Adding the stress of fall cutting will be like adding insult to injury, in our opinion carrying a higher degree of risk this year than normal.Unfortunately, many fields this year may not be at a reasonable harvest stage during the next two weeks, because the rainy weather early this season blew apart our normal harvest schedules. Many producers are faced with the choice between harvesting lower yields at a less mature stage now or waiting to harvest when yields will be higher. Like most farming decisions, there are trade-offs and risk factors to consider when making a fall legume harvest. This article reviews best management practices under the conditions we face this year.The decision of when to take the last harvest of alfalfa to ensure good winter survival and yield potential for the following year can be boiled down to two choices: 1) cut early enough in the fall (generally early September) to permit alfalfa to regrow and replenish carbohydrate root reserves, or 2) cut late enough so that alfalfa does not regrow and use up root reserves for that limited regrowth prior to winter dormancy. Cutting in between those times means more risk to the stand; however, there are factors such as previous cutting management, age of stand, soil fertility, variety, and soil moisture that affect the level of that risk.For those who are risk adverse, following the last cutting date recommendations offers the highest probability of promoting stand winter survival and vigorous green up and growth the following spring. The recommendation in the 15th edition of the Ohio Agronomy Guide is to complete the last regular harvest of alfalfa by September 7 in northern Ohio, September 12 in central Ohio and by September 15 in southern Ohio. The corollary is to delay final harvest until a killing frost (25F for several hours) has occurred.Another approach to fall harvest management uses growing degree-days (GDD) rather than calendar dates. Work done by Belanger et al. and published in 1998 in the Canadian Journal of Plant Science, indicates that alfalfa needs 500 GDD (based on degrees Celsius and base 5 C for alfalfa growth) between a late season cut and a killing frost to generate sufficient regrowth to provide good winter survival and yield potential for the following year. With regard to taking a late fall harvest, Dan Undersander, University of Wisconsin Extension retired forage specialist, wrote in a 2012 article “…we do not need to wait for a killing frost to take the last cutting. We must only wait until it is so cool that little or no regrowth will occur. Thus, harvesting in late fall, when less than 200 GDD will accumulate, minimizes winter injury…” The period between an accumulation of more than 200 GDD and less than 500 GDD is a no-cut period (GDD calculated from degrees Celsius scale with base 5C). This GDD approach provides flexibility in date of last harvest, but it involves more risk because the grower must predict or consider probability of either accumulating enough GDD or GDD not accumulating. Historic weather data, like that available from the OARDC weather stations (http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/weather1/), is useful to calculate those probabilities.Based on this GDD approach, we studied 5 years (2013-2017) of weather data at Wooster, OH. The date of a killing frost (25 F for several hours) ranged from November 3 to 22. The no cut zone of 500 to 200 GDD prior to the killing frost was September 17 to October 13 for three of the five years, but was September 4 to 30 in 2014 and September 10 to October 4 in 2013. So, the period of most risk for cutting alfalfa based on this GDD criterion agrees well with past recommendations to not cut alfalfa from early September to mid-October. Therefore, cutting in late October prior to a true killing frost of forage legumes, is likely to not result in little to no regrowth and no significant depletion of root reserves. However, there is still the risk of frost heaving with the late removal of forage cover (discussed more below).Previous harvest management should be a part of the risk equation and assessment of the probability of a fall harvest affecting stand survival and health. The cutting frequency during the growing season affects the energy status of the plant going into the fall. Frequent cutting (30-day intervals or less) results in the plant never reaching full energy reserve status during the growing season. A short regrowth period just prior to the fall harvest can be especially risky if that fall harvest occurs between mid-September and early October, because the regrowth uses root reserves and there won’t be enough growing weather remaining for the plants to accumulate a high level of root reserves before cold weather shuts down the plants. This lower root reserve status may limit winter survival and spring regrowth, depending on the winter and early spring growing conditions.Variety selection may also affect the risk assessment of fall cutting. Today’s top varieties have genetics selected to better withstand intensive cutting schedules. Alfalfa varieties with high disease resistance and good levels of winter hardiness will be more tolerant of a fall cutting. Adequate fertility, especially soil potassium levels, and a soil pH near 6.8 will improve plant health and increase tolerance to fall cutting. Stands under 3 years of age are generally more tolerant of fall cuttings than older stands where root and crown diseases are setting in. However, you have more productive stand life to lose if younger stands are harmed by fall cutting.Consider soil drainage and soil moisture. High soil moisture content slows down the cold hardening/fall dormancy process, increasing the risk of winter injury. Alfalfa stands on well-drained soils tolerate later fall cuttings better than alfalfa on moderately or poorly drained soils. But a word of CAUTION – Removing the top growth of alfalfa plants going into the winter on heavy soils and poorly drained soils increases the risk of damage from spring frost heaving, which is a significant risk on many Ohio soils with higher clay content. This would be a concern when cutting very late after the 200 GDD threshold date.Finally, consider the economics of a fall harvest. Often the height of the alfalfa is deceptive as an indicator of tonnage. The resulting windrow after cutting is often small or sparse. Thus, the cost of mechanically harvesting is high on a per ton basis.Fall cutting risk can be reduced but not eliminated. Nature bats last as we saw this spring and alfalfa stand health and survival will suffer when early freezes, open and very cold winters, early springs with ice, and/or extreme rainfall and temperature variations occur. Unfortunately, forage supplies are short this year, and some producers may be forced into taking more risk than they would like to take with fall cutting. But if at all possible, we urge producers to observe the fall rest period for forage legumes this year.
Japan’s Naomi Osaka serves the ball to Taiwan’s Su-Wei Hsieh during their round-of-16 match at the WTA Tennis Grand Prix in Stuttgart, southwestern Germany, on April 25, 2019. (Photo by THOMAS KIENZLE / AFP)After a week of training on the clay courts of the Rafa Nadal Academy in Mallorca, Naomi Osaka feels she’s rediscovered the form that had been missing since her Australian Open triumph in January.The top seed at the Madrid Open this week, Osaka says she’s ready to return to action and isn’t too concerned about the abdominal injury she sustained in Stuttgart where she reached the semi-final last week.ADVERTISEMENT Ethel Booba twits Mocha over 2 toilets in one cubicle at SEA Games venue SEA Games hosting troubles anger Duterte Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Private companies step in to help SEA Games hosting Hontiveros presses for security audit of national power grid PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games PLAY LIST 02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss LATEST STORIES Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. View comments Cayetano: Senate, Drilon to be blamed for SEA Games mess Philippine Arena Interchange inaugurated The world number one was forced to withdraw ahead of her semi-final against Anett Kontaveit at the German tournament but was seen hitting at Madrid’s Caja Magica on Friday, and says she’s pain-free.“I haven’t served up until today and basically I was just resting it,” Osaka told reporters in the Spanish capital on Friday.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSPalace wants Cayetano’s PHISGOC Foundation probed over corruption chargesSPORTSSingapore latest to raise issue on SEA Games food, logistics“Of course I hit ground strokes for the past three days because it’s not like I could fully rest, but it’s not painful, so I think it’s looking good.”Seeking her first title on clay, Osaka opens against 2016 runner-up Dominika Cibulkova in Madrid. DA eyes importing ‘galunggong’ anew “It was really fun actually, those matches, so I’m really looking forward to my next one,” added Osaka.Successful adjustmentAll three of Osaka’s career titles so far have come on hard-courts but she believes she’s been successfully adjusting her mentality on clay in order to contend at Roland Garros.“I think it’s fitness and also mental. Because last year I thought the number one thing I could have improved on, on clay, is just prolonging the point, or like accepting when I have to back off being aggressive,” she said.“So then when I played Donna (Vekic in Stuttgart) … I just remember telling myself that I don’t have to hit a winner for it to be a good point and I don’t have to play perfectly to win, so I think I was able to do that.“I was a bit sad I couldn’t continue that way of thinking because I had to withdraw but hopefully I can keep it here.”Osaka said she was impressed by Nadal’s academy during her training block there, despite her shyness in meeting the Spanish 17-time Grand Slam champion.“He’s a really nice person, he was sort of the one talking more than me, which you can kind of tell that that would happen,” she said.“Yesterday (in Madrid) he went on the court after me and he was talking to me again and I was like ‘woah’,” she said with a smile.Defending Madrid champion Petra Kvitova, a losing finalist to Osaka at the Australian Open, is the number two seed at the Caja Magica and opens her campaign against talented 20-year-old Sofia “Sonya” Kenin. MOST READ Following a second consecutive Grand Slam triumph at the Australian Open in January, the 21-year-old Osaka lost some momentum.The Japanese-Haitian star parted ways with her coach Sascha Bajin and suffered an opening round defeat in Dubai, a fourth-round exit in Indian Wells -– where she was the defending champion -– and a third-round loss in Miami.She hired Jermaine Jenkins as her coach ahead of Indian Wells, and says she feels like Stuttgart has got her back on track.“I think in Stuttgart, I did pretty well,” she said.“I played two really hard matches and I think that I just was able to turn a switch on that I haven’t been able to since the Australian [Open].ADVERTISEMENT PBA Finals: Beermen get back at Hotshots to tie series at 1-1 Panelo: Duterte ‘angry’ with SEA Games hosting hassles
The Chelsea manager is under fire for his tactics used against Tottenham Hotspur that ended up costing him the matchChelsea lost 3-1 against Tottenham Hotspur at Wembley Stadium in the English Premier League.And for manager Maurizio Sarri, this means he has to put N’Golo Kante closer to Jorginho in order to have a more solid midfield.“I want to play a central midfielder who is a very technical player, so for me, the central midfielder is Jorginho or [Cesc] Fabregas. I don’t want Kante in this position,” he told Sky Sports.Maurizio Sarri satisfied despite Juventus’ draw at Fiorentina Andrew Smyth – September 14, 2019 Maurizio Sarri was satisfied with Juventus’ performance on Saturday afternoon after finishing a tough game at Fiorentina 0-0.“Kante, in the last match, wanted to solve the match after the first 15 minutes, but in the wrong way. He lost the position, he attacked too much.”“This one is not one of the best characteristics of Kante, but it was only in reaction to the difficulties,” he added.“Maybe it’s only a question of time, but Kante has to stay near to Jorginho, especially when the ball is on the other side. When the ball is on the left he has to stay very close to Jorginho.”
Laura Isensee/Houston Public MediaParent and activist Travis McGee addressed a crowd of people at the HISD meeting while the board was in closed session and before a scuffle erupted with police officers.Months ago in May, Houston Mayor Sylvester Turner announced that he wanted the city to get directly involved in local schools.Now that desire has evolved into a new nonprofit, created by Turner’s education office.It’s the latest effort to address problems with Houston’s chronically under-performing schools and the threat of a state take-over, but already it’s drawing protests and push-back from parents and education advocates.“I recognize there needs to be a collaborative effort and shouldn’t be something I should do by myself, but collaboratively, there should be no low-performing schools in my city,” Turner said earlier this year.The city-related nonprofit is called the Coalition for Educational Excellence and Equity in Houston. News 88.7 obtained state records that show Turner’s education chief Juliet Stipeche and three civic leaders are heading up the coalition. Listen About half a dozen people protested the idea at City Hall. Bobbie Cohen called it an effort to privatize public education.“I don’t know why the city has decided to involve itself in a nonprofit coalition with three board members none of whom seem to have any real expertise in education, unless, of course, you count lobbying for ALEC which is an organization that has never met a government entity it did not want to privatize,” Cohen said. Still, Turner defended the effort: “It is an offer, it is up to HISD. No one here is trying to force HISD to do anything. No one.”HISD Board President Rhonda Skillern-Jones told News 88.7 that the board will vote on issuing an RFP (meaning a Request for Proposal) on Thursday. “After then we will know how to move forward,” said Skillern-Jones.Earlier this year, when the HISD board considered approving an outside partnership for struggling schools, the controversial measure sparked protests and arrests at the public meeting.EDITOR’S NOTE: This story has been updated to include the comment by HISD Board President Rhonda Skillern-Jones. Share X Under the state law known as SB 1882, the Houston Independent School District could give the nonprofit temporary control of some Houston schools. That in turn would give the district a two-year pause on steep sanctions, including a potential state takeover.The board has to decide by early February if it wants to pursue this effort or any other partnership for struggling schools. This week, the HISD board added a new agenda item for its meeting Thursday to decide if they want to request any outside partnerships.On Tuesday, Turner issued new details on the objectives of the coalition and defended it at City Hall.He outlined in a statement that the nonprofit aims to administer 15 HISD schools. They would include struggling schools that could trigger state sanctions and their related schools in their neighborhoods, or feeder patterns. Turner also said that he plans to appoint six more board members to the nonprofit. So far, three business executives are the only voting members: Corbin J. Robertson Jr.; Trinidad “Trini” Vasquez-Mendenhall; and Stephanie Nellons-Paige. X To embed this piece of audio in your site, please use this code: 00:00 /00:57 00:00 /00:54 Listen To embed this piece of audio in your site, please use this code: