Tag Archives: 爱上海HX

18Nov/20

Chikungunya fever gains foothold in Europe

first_img In recent years, epidemics have occurred in India and on various Indian Ocean islands, including Comorros, Mauritius, Reunion, and Seychelles. A major epidemic struck Reunion, a French territory, between March 2005 and June 2006, sickening an estimated 266,000 people, about 35% of the population, according to Eurosurveillance. Several hundred cases occurred in France during the Reunion epidemic, but nearly all were linked to the island epidemic, the report says. Eurosurveillance reporthttp://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=3260 CDC information on chikungunyahttp://www.cdc.gov/chikungunya/ The Eurosurveillance report does not say whether the index case-patient reported mosquito bites, but an online news report by the journal Nature says authorities think the virus “spread among the dense population of tiger mosquitoes” after the man’s illness. There is a possibility that the same thing could happen in the United States, since the two mosquito species that can spread the virus are found in the Southeast, according to an official with the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). But he said the likelihood of that is “relatively low.” Flahault suggested that the very dense mosquito population in and around Ravenna had spurred the outbreak, according to the story. He said the Italian climate has grown warmer and more humid, favoring the proliferation of mosquitoes. Chikungunya usually causes fever, headache, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, muscle and joint pain, and a rash, according to the CDC. The disease is not life-threatening. Symptoms typically last a few days to 2 weeks, but fatigue or joint pain sometimes lingers for weeks to months, the CDC says. “The current outbreak of chikungunya fever in northeastern Italy . . . marks the first recorded occasion that this virus has been transmitted by mosquitoes within Europe,” the report states. The report says A albopictus is found in several other European countries, including Albania, France, Belgium, Montenegro, Switzerland, Greece, Spain, Croatia, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, and possibly more, suggesting a potential for further spread of the disease. Could disease spread to the US?The United States has recorded some chikungunya cases among returning travelers, but no transmission of the disease, according to Dr. Ned Hayes, a medical epidemiologist with the CDC’s Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases in Fort Collins, Colo. But he said the two mosquitoes that can spread chikungunya—A albopictus and Aedes aegypti—are found in the southeastern United States. “For chikungunya to be transmitted in the US, you need to have a viremic person or mosquito introduction in an area where both susceptible persons and the predominant mosquito vector are present,” Hayes said. “Both those conditions exist in the US, so I think the importation of chikungunya is a concern.” Epidemics described as cyclicalThe World Health Organization (WHO) reports that major chikungunya epidemics “appear and disappear cyclically,” with quiet periods usually lasting 7 to 8 years but sometimes as long as 20 years. Chikungunya clinically resembles dengue fever, which is widespread in the tropics, according to the WHO. The chikungunya virus was first identified in 1953 during an epidemic in Tanzania, according to the CDC. Europe has had scattered cases of chikungunya before, mainly in travelers from parts of Africa and Asia where the disease is established. But the outbreak this summer in Italy’s Ravenna province was spread by mosquitoes, according to a report published Sep 6 by Eurosurveillance Weekly. The name “chikungunya” is Swahili for “that which bends up,” a reference to the stooped posture associated with joint pain. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment for the illness, which is caused by a virus of the genus Alphavirus. But the risk of indigenous transmission is “probably relatively low in the continental United States,” mainly because of socioeconomic and lifestyle differences that tend to limit the spread of mosquito-borne viruses like chikungunya, dengue, and yellow fever, Hayes said. For example, air conditioning and window screens help protect people from heavy exposure to mosquitoes, he explained. Hayes said the key message is that people should be aware of mosquito-borne illness risks, especially when traveling, and take steps to protect themselves from bites. Travelers who have a fever on returning to the United States should seek medical attention and inform health authorities of any infection.center_img Eurosurveillance says the disease was mild and self-limiting in most patients, but joint pain was intense and often persisted after the fever abated. One patient, an 83-year-old man with severe underlying health problems, died. Antoine Flahault, who coordinates French research on chikungunya, called the Italian outbreak a “world first” outside the tropics, according to a Sep 7 BBC News report. Writing in the journal Quotidien du Medecin, he said the virus’s movement into Europe was “worrying without being alarming.” Italy reports 166 casesIn the Italian outbreak, officials recorded 166 cases, most of them in two neighboring villages, according to Eurosurveillance. The outbreak is believed to have started after a man from India fell ill while visiting one of the villages in late June. The epidemic peaked in the third week of August. “It’s possible, if the virus should become endemic in, say, the southeastern US, that it could provide a locus for spread to other parts of the country, but I wouldn’t think it would spread like West Nile virus,” he said. Birds have helped spread West Nile across the continent since the disease emerged in New York City in 1999. Sep 10, 2007 (CIDRAP News) – A recent outbreak of the debilitating tropical disease known as chikungunya fever in northern Italy apparently marks the mosquito-borne infection’s first foothold in Europe, according to European health authorities. Chikungunya does not commonly spread from person to person, Hayes said. However, it can spread from a pregnant woman to her fetus, and it could probably be spread via blood donated by an infected person, he said. But infected people have the virus in their blood for only a short time. “We don’t even know why West Nile disease [another mosquito-borne viral illness] became endemic in North America but not in Europe, even though the virus and the vector are present on both continents,” Evelyn Depoortere, an epidemiologist at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control in Stockholm, told Nature. However, areas where dengue transmission already occurs or is possible may be more vulnerable to chikungunya, Hayes said. Such areas include parts of Florida and Texas, plus Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. But scientists quoted in the Nature story said they don’t know enough to predict whether the disease will spread to other European countries that have A albopictus. WHO Southeast Asia information sheet on chikungunyahttp://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs327/en/ See also: If chikungunya did gain a toehold in the United States, it would be unlikely to spread across the continent, in Hayes’s opinion. Although the Italian outbreak was associated with A albopictus, the primary vector for chikungunya is A aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito, the CDC says. It was not until the end of August that investigators zeroed in on the diagnosis of chikungunya, using serologic testing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the Eurosurveillance report says. In addition, the virus was detected in local Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, also known as tiger mosquitoes, by PCR. CDC information on A albopictushttp://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/arbor/albopic_new.htmlast_img read more

28Sep/20

DSME Wins Its Fifth LNG Carrier Order This Year

first_imgSouth Korea’s Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering has received an order for a 174,000 cubic meter LNG carrier, the shipbuilder confirmed on May 14.Under the contract, received from an undisclosed Oceania shipowner, the vessel would be constructed at DSME’s Geoje Okpo shipyard.The shipyard is scheduled to deliver the LNG carrier, which is DSME’s fifth gas order this year, in the second half of 2021.So far in 2019, the Korean shipbuilding major secured an orderbook of 14 units with a value of USD 2.5 billion, representing 30% of its order target for this year.Apart from the five LNG carriers, the currents orderbook includes six crude oil carriers and three submarines.World Maritime News Stafflast_img read more

11Aug/19

Go back to the enewsletter In October this year

first_imgGo back to the e-newsletterIn October this year, Scenic will celebrate 30 years. Since beginning life as a domestic coach tour operator in 1986, the leading luxury travel operator has evolved to become one of Australia’s most successful travel companies – now specialising in cruising, and travelling to every continent and over 60 countries across the globe.Founded in Newcastle by Glen Moroney, business began by offering coach tours along Victoria’s Great Ocean Road to Warrnambool. Soon identifying that two door coaches would enhance the guest experience, Scenic designed the first two door coaches in Australia which were then rolled out across the fleet.In the early 1990s this expanded to New Zealand, followed by Norfolk Island in 1997 and Southern Africa in 1998. By the end of the decade Scenic was hosting tours to Canada and Alaska, and throughout the early 2000s new destinations were added across Europe and Russia, throughout Asia, the Americas and Antarctica.In 2008, just over 20 years later, a new chapter commenced in the company’s history when it launched its first exclusive, all-inclusive Scenic Space-Ships on Europe’s waterways. These ships challenged ship design conventions and were one of the first to be built to 135 metres allowing for outdoor balconies whilst also creating more space in the bar lounge area and room for a second restaurant. The first two seasons fully booked out.“We wanted to deliver our guests an experience they couldn’t get anywhere else. What stuck with me was that you could not sit outside on a balcony and enjoy the spectacular never ending scenery along the rivers. We just knew there had to be a better way to build the ships. So we did,” said Glen on Scenic’s ambitious decision to build its own river cruise ships.Over the next seven years the Space-Ship fleet continued to grow, as well as expanding to include the Seine, Bordeaux, Saône and Rhône rivers in France and the Douro in Portugal. In 2014, Scenic announced its expansion into South East Asia with the launch of Scenic Spirit on the Mekong and Scenic Aura on Myanmar’s Irrawaddy River.2015 was a milestone year which saw a major rebrand when the name Scenic Tours was no longer an accurate description of the company’s now extensive product offering. A new name and positioning was needed to better reflect the company’s focus on cruising and resonate more strongly with guests and agents.Commenting on the future, Glen added: “Innovation continues to be at the cornerstone of all that we do with this year’s launch of our Ocean Cruise Line and the World’s First Discovery Yacht – Scenic Eclipse, pushing the boundaries of ship design and taking the guest discovery experience to a whole new level. This heralds a new direction for Scenic, which we are all truly excited about.”After 30 years Scenic is still 100 per cent Australian-owned and employs over 1,600 staff around the world. Scenic will be celebrating its 30 year anniversary throughout 2016.Go back to the e-newsletterlast_img read more