La Fuerza, a club that celebrates Latina culture at Saint Mary’s, organized a “Week of Action” on campus this past week to address pressing issues facing the Latin community, sophomore Maria Hernandez, president of the club, said.Hernandez said the theme of the week was “Into the Unknown: The Immigration Journey of Unaccompanied Minors.” She said she thought this theme was especially important as there was an influx of unaccompanied minors crossing the border into the U.S. from Latin America this past summer.“This was not the first time unaccompanied minors have come to the United States,” Hernandez said. “This has been and will continue to be an ongoing issue within the immigration sphere.“This recent crisis has exposed the many issues within the immigration system. These issues range from humanitarian to political issues — which is why La Fuerza decided to cover this particular issue from a variety of perspectives.”A panel of community members spoke about their experiences with immigration Tuesday, Hernandez said.Jose Alvarez, a senior at Holy Cross, spoke about the experience of his five-year-old cousin, who traveled from Honduras to Mexico via plane and then was sent across the border with ‘coyotes,’ people who smuggle immigrants into the U.S., Hernandez said.Hernandez said it was important for students to hear Alvarez’s story because the audience was able to put a face to the week’s theme of immigration and unaccompanied minors.Alvarez also showed a video of his cousin reuniting with his aunt in the U.S. after the long journey.After the journey, Jose’s cousin said he just wanted to eat pizza, which helped strengthen the audience’s connection to the child, Hernandez said.Throughout Alvarez’s story, there was also a great amount of information about how his cousin was treated while in the custody of the immigration system, Hernandez said.“[Alvarez shared] how his cousin was given one sandwich a day [while in custody] and a thin ‘aluminum foil’ type blanket which did not keep him warm,” she said. “Jose also shared how his cousin had to sign a paper stating he understood his basic rights.”On Wednesday, Fr. Daniel Groody, associate professor of theology and director of immigration initiatives at the Institute for Latino Studies at Notre Dame, spoke about his experience working on the border of U.S. and Mexico, Hernandez said.Representatives from Saint Mary’s Republican Club and Democrat Club also engaged in a political debate about immigration Thursday as part of the week’s events, Hernandez said.Overall, the week was designed for students to understand multiple viewpoints about child immigration because there are many injustices surrounding the issue, Hernandez said.“There is a lack of intercultural understanding, which is why we wanted to cover a wide variety of perspectives, because many people have different understandings of this issue,” she said. “We find it necessary to offer all perspectives to tackle this issue, to improve the lives of these children and learn what we can do to ensure their situation gets better.” Tags: Immigration, La Fuerza, unaccompanied minors, Week of Action
The government has allocated Rp 695.2 trillion (US$49.3 billion) from the state budget to fund its fight against the coronavirus. The funds are allocated to strengthen the healthcare system and bolster the economy during the virus-induced economic downturn, among other things.According to Finance Ministry data, the government had only spent 4.68 percent of Rp 87.5 trillion (US$6.09 billion) allocated for the healthcare sector as of Monday, while spending on social assistance reached 34.06 percent of the Rp 203.9 trillion budget.Meanwhile, the government has also spent 22.74 percent of the Rp 123.46 trillion allocated to incentives for micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) as it placed Rp 30 trillion in state-owned banks to boost loan disbursement for businesses.The government has also spent 10.14 percent of the Rp 120.6 trillion allocated to tax incentives, and 4 percent of the Rp 106.1 trillion allocated to be used as stimulus for regional governments.“We will track the stimulus spending so that it will go to those who need it most,” Sri Mulyani said on Tuesday. “This is aimed at addressing the economic impact of the pandemic and therefore the possibility of socioeconomic recovery will be bigger.”Economists have long pushed the government to swiftly disburse the allocated funds as various data indicate weakening private consumption and cooling business activity as the pandemic unfolds.Statistics Indonesia (BPS) announced Wednesday that inflation stood at 1.96 percent year-on-year (yoy) in June, a 20-year low and below Bank Indonesia’s (BI) target range of between 2 and 4 percent for the year. BPS head Suhariyanto told reporters last month that this year’s low inflation was due to weaker purchasing power as the pandemic reined in consumer demand.Meanwhile, falling imports in all goods categories of more than 40 percent in May point to lower demand and weaker manufacturing activities as well as investment.“Fiscal authorities must be more aggressive in spending their budget to jump-start the economy in the near term,” Bank Central Asia (BCA) economist David Sumual told The Jakarta Post last week, adding that government spending should grow by double digits this year to prevent a greater economic downturn.Bank Permata economist Josua Pardede urged the government on Tuesday to speed up spending to bolster the economy. He warned that slow disbursement might hinder economic recovery.The government expects Indonesia’s economy to shrink 3.8 percent in the second quarter this year and rebound in the subsequent quarters as it began reopening the economy despite a surge in virus cases.It now expects full-year growth of 1 percent in the baseline scenario or contraction of 0.4 percent in the worst-case scenario.Topics : Disbursement of the COVID-19 budget for the healthcare sector, for instance, stood at less than 5 percent so far, she added. The Health Ministry has encountered problems in verifying the hospitals, the doctors’ names and their area of duty, meaning that not all frontliners had received government incentives, among other issues.“On that basis, the administrative and verification process remain obstacles [in disbursing the funds],” Sri Mulyani stressed.In a video released on Sunday by his press office, President Joko “Jokowi” Widodo highlighted the slow disbursement of the government’s COVID-19 response budget as he called on his ministers to go the extra mile to accelerate the implementation of pandemic policies.“All the money that’s supposed to be for the people is stuck,” he said, telling his ministers to disburse the healthcare budget and the much-anticipated social aid program in an uncharacteristically angry speech. Several administrative issues have hampered the government’s efforts to disburse COVID-19 funds swiftly, Finance Minister Sri Mulyani Indrawati has said, as economists push the government to quickly channel the funds to avoid slowing economic recovery.Sri Mulyani admitted that the stimulus spending was still slow to take effect on the economy due to the operational challenges.“The stimulus is currently in the early stage and we will improve [disbursement] to speed up spending,” she said on Monday, urging ministries and government agencies to accelerate spending in a bid to bolster the economy.
MOST READ DAY6 is for everybody Pasaol’s magnificence saw him become the top single game scorer this century in the UAAP, toppling now-National University head coach Jeff Napa’s 15-year-old record of 42 points.READ: La Salle sends UE to 0-6, spoils Pasaol’s 49-point explosionFEATURED STORIESSPORTSRedemption is sweet for Ginebra, Scottie ThompsonSPORTSMayweather beats Pacquiao, Canelo for ‘Fighter of the Decade’SPORTSFederer blasts lack of communication on Australian Open smogFor Mbala, watching someone apart from him dominate the game deserves praise of the highest accord.“He was just in the zone, he played very well, and he was able to lead his team. I feel like we didn’t do a good job of stopping him,” said Mbala Wednesday at Smart Araneta Coliseum. Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. OSG plea to revoke ABS-CBN franchise ‘a duplicitous move’ – Lacson View comments Jake says relationship with Shaina ‘goes beyond physical attraction’ LATEST STORIES Mos Burger to open in Manila; teases with a pop-up Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next It’s too early to present Duterte’s ‘legacy’ – Lacson How to help the Taal evacuees Photo by Tristan Tamayo/INQUIRER.netIn a game where Ben Mbala recorded yet another career performance, the La Salle center had no choice but to take the backseat and tip his hat to University of the East’s Alvin Pasaol.Mbala had a career-high 39 points in the Green Archers’ 106-100 win over University of the East but it was Pasaol who dominated the stat sheets when he finished with 49 points.ADVERTISEMENT In ‘Jojo Rabbit,’ Comedy and Drama Collide Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard PLAY LIST 02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award Margot Robbie talks about filming ‘Bombshell’s’ disturbing sexual harassment scene Nueva Ecija warehouse making fake cigarettes raided, 29 Chinese workers nabbed Perasol, Maroons remain upbeat despite 2 straight losses “For a guy to drop 50 on us, and if a guy is in the zone, we have to take him out of the comfort zone.”Mbala and Pasaol even had a tender moment near the end of the game when the two exchanged a small embrace with the big man as if almost congratulating the Red Warrior on a job well done.“I told him to keep working, he did a great job, and when a guy plays well you have to acknowledge him,” said Mbala. “The guy played well and I’ll give it to him.”“This is the game of basketball, we all want to have fun. We have to enjoy and I have to congratulate him for his career-high.”ADVERTISEMENT
Alan Higgins will fight in Finland this weekend in the Kilburn middleweight’s second professional bout.The 24-year-old, who was originally scheduled to appear at York Hall in Bethnal Green, will now take on Richard Hadju of Hungary at the Seinäjoki Arena.The switch came about because Higgins’ trainer CJ Hussein also works with Finnish cruiserweight Juho Haapoja, who is making a defence of his European title on the bill.Higgins enjoyed an impressive debut, stopping Emmanuel Moussinga in the first round at York Hall in July.See also:Perfect start for Kilburn boxer HigginsHiggins wins on professional debutFollow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebook
Mars has no liquid water today, but water must have covered much of the planet in the past. How? Nobody knows.Look at the diagram of Mars the way some secular planetary scientists believe it looked in ancient times (Phys.org). It’s almost covered with water. How could that be? There’s no liquid water there today, and Mars lacks the atmosphere that could keep it liquid. It’s also too cold for liquid water most of the time, although some may be locked up as ice in the polar caps.Scientists infer its presence by its effects. The surface of Mars today is covered with what look like drainage channels. A leading hypothesis is that liquid water carved them at some time in the unobservable past, perhaps about 3 billion years ago.A new study led by Northern Illinois University geography professor Wei Luo calculates the amount of water needed to carve the ancient network of valleys on Mars and concludes the Red Planet’s surface was once much more watery than previously thought.Dr. Luo and his two colleagues re-estimated the amount of water needed. The new estimate is an order of magnitude higher than previous estimates, and 4,000 times the volume of all the valley cavities. He envisions an earth-like Mars with a water cycle, rainfall, rivers, streams, and a large ocean covering over half the planet.Our most conservative estimates of the global volume of the Martian valley networks and the cumulative amount of water needed to carve those valleys are at least 10 times greater than most previous estimates.There are some problems, though. Nobody knows how the water got there, or how it could last if it did.But a large piece of the puzzle is missing, he added, because climate models have not been able to reproduce an early Mars climate sufficiently warm enough to promote an active hydrologic cycle.“Mars is much farther way from the sun than Earth, and when the sun was younger, it was not as bright as it is today,” Luo said. “So there’s still a lot to work out in trying to reconcile the evidence for more water.“Dr Luo needs a large ocean in his model to account for a water cycle that could drive rainfall and erosion to create the valley networks (VNs). Undoubtedly an ocean on a planet with 38% earth’s gravity would not just sit still like a placid sea. Even without a large moon, diurnal rotation and atmospheric winds would likely set up tides and currents. Some of the geological features are considered to be tsunami deposits. Could a sufficiently large impact or volcano move water over continents?Mars elevation map, 2002 MOLAThe paper in Nature Communications sets out some of the possibilities for a Martian ocean in motion: fluctuating shorelines, tsunami deposits, sedimentary layers and deltas. Luo does not speak of any floods. It’s amusing, however, to see planetary scientists routinely refer to a “Noachian epoch” on Mars.How solid is the evidence for a large ocean on Mars? “There is no ground truth to assess the real accuracy of our estimation,” he says. In planetary science, that’s OK these days. If your model requires it, that’s enough reason to believe in it, even if you can’t imagine how water could exist on Mars at all. Someone’s rule of speculating is that if you’re going to tell a whopper, you might as well tell a really big one:Our result is consistent with a warm and wet early Mars climate and the existence of an ancient northern ocean. If erosion of the VNs required significant chemical or physical weathering to produce transportable sediment, fluvial abrasion of channel beds or transport of appreciable quantities of gravel, the required volume of water may have been many times our conservative estimate.Luo justifies his whopper on the basis that something had to carve these channels. If not a wet, warm, oceanic Mars, what did?But on Earth, where the surface is 70% covered by water, could there have been a global flood? Oh, come now; that’s just a religious myth.We’re not disparaging scientific models. Creation geologists use models to try to retrofit observations to Noah’s flood. Dr Walt Brown, for instance, traced ancient shorelines north and west of Grand Canyon to model a large inland lake that could have carved the canyon by a dam breach. Models are useful tools, but they are only simulations of reality. The test of a model is how well it conforms to observable reality. If your assumptions do not hang together well (for instance, a faint young sun with a warm, wet Mars), you had better remain humble about your assumptions, and be open to alternatives. And if you are going to go out on a limb like Dr Luo does, don’t disparage the work of those whose models have much better correspondence with observable reality. Creation geologists can count ten or more clear evidences from the Grand Canyon alone that not only support a global flood, but rule out any other explanation. That’s ground truth. And when you have an eyewitness account from the One who brought it about, that’s truth.Recommended Resource: Want to see evidence for the Flood yourself at the Grand Canyon? Logos Research Associates has a trip planned for June 30 to July 2: 3 days, 2 nights for only $285. Click the link for full information. Highly recommended! (Visited 745 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest By Evin Bachelor, Law Fellow, Ohio State University Extension Agricultural and Resource Law ProgramThe Ohio Power Siting Board’s approval of new wind-turbine models in facility’s certificate does not constitute an amendment to the certificate for the purposes of triggering current turbine-setback requirements. In 2014, the Ohio Power Siting Board approved an application by Greenwich Windpark to construct a wind farm in Huron County with up to 25 wind turbines. In the initial application, all of the wind turbines would have used the same model of turbine. Just over a year after the application was approved, the wind farm developer applied for an amendment to add three additional models to the approved wind turbine model list, noting that the technology had advanced since its initial application. Two of the three newer models would be larger than the originally planned model, but would occupy the same locations and would comply with the minimum setback requirements at the time the application was approved.The issue involved whether the new setback requirements, which were put in place by the state between the initial approval and the requested change, should apply. An amendment to a certificate would trigger the current wind turbine setback requirements. Greenwich Windpark wanted the less restrictive setback requirements in their initial application to still apply to the newer models, but a local group wanted the more restrictive setback requirements to apply. The Ohio Power Siting Board said that adding the new wind turbine models would not be an amendment, and would not trigger the more restrictive setbacks. The Ohio Supreme Court sided with the Ohio Power Siting Board, explaining that the Ohio General Assembly wanted the Ohio Power Siting Board to have broad authority to regulate wind turbines.
An independent MLA was on Sunday booked by the Punjab police for allegedly berating Gurdaspur Deputy Commissioner publicly at the civil hospital here on the issue of identity of a victim’s body, with the video of the incident having gone viral. In the video, legislator Simranjit Singh Bains is seen shouting at Deputy Commissioner Vipul Ujwal even as the officer tries to clear some confusion over the identity of a blast victim’s body. A day after the blast in a firecracker unit here that killed 23 people, Lok Insaaf Party chief and MLA Bains had allegedly berated Ujwal publicly at the civil hospital here. Police have booked Ludhiana MLA and his unidentified 20-odd associates on charges of voluntarily obstructing and assaulting or using criminal force against a public servant from discharging his duty, committing trespass and making criminal intimidation and other relevant sections of the Indian Penal Code. Senior Superintendent of Police Opinderjit Singh said the FIR has been registered on the complaint of Batala Sub-divisional Magistrate Balraj Singh who was also present at the time of incident. Yells at the officer“Eh tere baap da office nahi hai. Eh public da office hai. Te tu public nu hi keh rehan ki bahar jao. (It’s not your father’s office, it’s a public office and you are asking the public to get out),” Mr. Bains is heard yelling at Mr. Ujwal, even as the officer is seen trying to calm the infuriated MLA in the video. “Mera naal gal kar la pehla” (Talk to me first),” the legislator is seen telling the officer earlier in the 45-second video in presence of SSP Mr. Singh, Civil Surgeon Kishan Chand and Deputy SP Balkrishna Singla.Refuses to see reasons With the furious MLA refusing to see reasons, a humiliated Deputy Commissioner is heard merely quipping “I’m not going to talk to you” and seen leaving the place. Reacting to the registration of case against him and his companions, Mr. Bains accused Chief Minister Amarinder Singh of being behind the legal action against him.
Miami Heat guard Goran Dragic, right, drives past Oklahoma City Thunder guard Dennis Schroder, left, in the first half of an NBA basketball game against Miami Heat, Monday, March 18, 2019, in Oklahoma City. (AP Photo/Kyle Phillips)OKLAHOMA CITY — The Thunder were foundering without their star point guard, and the Miami Heat — like Oklahoma City trying to improve their playoff position — took advantage.Goran Dragic had 26 points and 11 assists, and Dwyane Wade added 25 points in the Heat’s 116-107 win Monday night over the Thunder, who played without the suspended Russell Westbrook.ADVERTISEMENT Without Schroder running the second unit, Oklahoma City’s bench lacked scoring punch and it showed, as Miami’s reserves outscored the Thunder’s 67-10. Dragic and Wade both came off the bench for the Heat, and reserve James Johnson had 14 points.“The reality is, we’re bringing some firepower off the bench,” Heat coach Erik Spoelstra said. “Our starters have been tremendous, but it’s not going to work in this league all the time. You’re not always going to be able to get off to the starts that you want. We’re bringing a Hall of Famer off the bench, an All-Star. … It’s not like we’re cringing when we go to the bench. It takes a collective effort.”The first half featured wild swings. The Thunder led 13-0 after the Heat missed their first eight shots, but a 17-0 run by Miami’s reserves put the Heat ahead before the end of the first quarter. The Heat led 41-29 with 8:12 left in the second quarter, but Oklahoma City pulled within 58-55 by halftime.Miami rebuilt its lead to 15 points in the third quarter. A dunk by Grant with 11:02 left got the Thunder within 86-79 before a 15-3 run by the Heat ended all doubt. A 3-pointer by Josh Richardson — who is from the Oklahoma City suburb of Edmond — put Miami up 101-82 with 7:29 left.“They hit some tough shots,” Schroder said. “We forced them to shoot non-paint twos and D-Wade and Dragic did a great job tonight. Credit to them.ADVERTISEMENT “We’ve just got to keep working every game, try to get better as a team and play together. Especially during tough stretches like we’re going through now, we’ve got to stay together as a team.”ENJOYING THE DRAMASpoelstra acknowledges the Heat’s schedule to close the season is difficult, but says his team is “embracing the competition.”“We all feel alive in there,” he said. “It’s not just because of the wins, because of the consequences, the pain of a loss and the celebration of getting the job done in a tough place. We know, even without Westbrook — which is a significant difference, let’s be fair about that — but you still have to take care of business in a place where they don’t lose very often. You have to play well and we were able to do that.”TIP-INSHeat: Justise Winslow missed his second straight game with a right thigh bruise suffered Friday against Milwaukee, while Rodney McGruder sat out with left knee soreness. … Former Thunder player Dion Waiters received louder-than-usual applause as starting lineups were introduced, but Wade received a standing ovation when he entered four minutes into the game. … Wade’s 674 career points vs. the Thunder is his second-highest total against a Western Conference foe, behind only Portland (699).Thunder: Westbrook could earn another one-game suspension for every two technical fouls the rest of the regular season. He’s now missed nine games this season because of injury or suspension. … Backup C Nerlens Noel didn’t play because of a left quad contusion. … Markieff Morris picked up a technical foul with 1:40 left in the third quarter.UP NEXTHeat: Continue their four-game trip on Wednesday in San Antonio.Thunder: Host Toronto on Wednesday before visiting the Raptors on Friday. LATEST STORIES View comments Bloomberg: US would benefit from more, not fewer, immigrants PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games PLAY LIST 02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss Kelly Olynyk added 18 points and nine rebounds for Miami, which moved within one game of seventh-place Brooklyn in the Eastern Conference. The Heat snapped a six-game losing streak against Oklahoma City, which now has lost nine of its last 13 games to fall to sixth in the Western Conference.“We put our track shoes on, put all our pads on and went out there ready for a tough basketball game that has a playoff kind of feel to it,” said Wade, who played 33 minutes.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSPalace wants Cayetano’s PHISGOC Foundation probed over corruption chargesSPORTSSingapore latest to raise issue on SEA Games food, logisticsPaul George scored 31 points with nine rebounds and Jerami Grant had 27 points and 10 rebounds for Oklahoma City. Dennis Schroder, who started in Westbrook’s place, scored 20 points. Steven Adams had 10 points and 12 rebounds but was limited by foul trouble to 25 minutes.Westbrook picked up his NBA-leading 16th technical foul in a loss to Golden State on Saturday, earning an automatic one-game suspension at a pivotal time for his team. He was not with the team on Monday and thus not inside Chesapeake Energy Arena to watch the Thunder struggle, shooting 43.7 percent and committing 19 turnovers. Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Colombia protesters vow new strike after talks hit snag Spurs extend streak to 9 straight, stun Warriors Wintry storm delivers US travel woes before Thanksgiving Miguel Romero Polo: Bamboo technology like no other Private companies step in to help SEA Games hosting Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. SEA Games hosting troubles anger Duterte Google Philippines names new country director Trump tells impeachment jokes at annual turkey pardon event MOST READ
Authorities say multiple people have been shot in northeast Maryland in what the FBI is describing as an “active shooter situation.” (Jerry Jackson /The Baltimore Sun via AP)Worker Walter Zambrano, 64, said he was fortunate that he was in a bathroom when shooting broke out during a 9 a.m. morning break when workers were gathering in a cafeteria. He hid in the bathroom until the shooting stopped, fearing for his life.The person was “shooting like crazy, bam! bam! bam!” Zambrano said, speaking in Spanish. “Everyone was screaming, running this way and that. I didn’t know which way to run.”Harford County Sheriff Jeffrey Gahler told a news conference hours later that the woman had been identified as a temporary employee, Snochia Moseley of Baltimore County. It appears only one weapon was used — a 9 mm Glock handgun that was registered in Moseley’s name — and no shots were fired by responding law enforcement officers, he added.“She had reported for her workday as usual, and around 9 a.m. the shooting began, striking victims both outside the business and inside the facility,” Gahler said.He called it a “senseless crime,” adding investigators didn’t have any motive immediately after the shooting.Three people were fatally shot and three more were wounded but expected to survive, the sheriff said. The victims were not immediately identified. Moseley died at a hospital from a self-inflicted gunshot wound, according to the sheriff.The sheriff said the call about shots fired came in at about 9:06 a.m. Thursday and deputies and other officers were on the scene in just over five minutes. The shooting began outside the business and continued inside, he said.Krystal Watson said her husband Eric works at the facility and told her told her the suspect had been arguing with somebody else near a time clock after a “town hall meeting.”“And she went off,” she said.“She didn’t have a particular target. She was just shooting,” Watson said as she left a fire station where relatives sought to be reunited with loved ones.Susan Henderson, spokeswoman for the drugstore chain Rite Aid, described the building where the shooting took place as a support facility adjacent to a larger building. The company said in a statement that the facility had been closed temporarily and grief counselors were being made available to workers.The company didn’t immediately respond to an inquiry about Moseley’s employment history.Mike Carre, an employee of a furniture logistics operation next to the distribution center, said he helped tend to a wounded man who came hobbling in, bleeding from his leg. He called 911 before helping colleagues wrap the man’s blood-soaked jeans above his injury to cut off blood flow.Carre said the man told him the shooter “just came in in a bad mood this morning. He said she’s usually nice. But today, I guess it wasn’t her day. She just came in to pick a fight with someone.”“She pulled out a gun and she just started shooting at her co-workers.”The attack came nearly three months after a man with a shotgun attacked a newspaper office in Annapolis, Maryland, killing five staff members. Authorities accused Jarrod W. Ramos of attacking The Capital Gazette because of a longstanding grudge against the paper. It came less than a year after a fatal workplace shooting less than 10 miles (16 kilometers) from the warehouse, in which five were shot, three fatally.Harford County Executive Barry Glassman said that, unfortunately, shooting like this are “becoming a too-often occurrence” in the nation.On Thursday, 33-year-old Dominique Norton of Aberdeen, endured an excruciating wait of nearly two hours to be reunited with her mother, 62-year-old warehouse worker Irene Norton. The younger woman said she didn’t know that her mother was unharmed until she got off a bus at the fire station and they tearfully embraced.“I busted out crying. I was relieved and shaken,” she said. “I am praying for all of the victims.” Updated Sept. 21By The Associated PressWorkers say they endured horrifying moments of wild gunfire and terror as a woman working a temporary job at a drugstore warehouse in Maryland fired on colleagues with a handgun, killing three people before fatally shooting herself.The shooting, which authorities said was touched off when the worker got into an argument Thursday morning, sent survivors screaming and running in all directions from the Rite Aid distribution center in northeastern Maryland. Others nearby helped the wounded and one person tied blood-soaked jeans around an injured man’s leg trying to staunch the bleeding.
Explore further This observation has led researchers to ask how evolution may have selected for personality variation within a species. A team from the UK has recently suggested a novel yet simple answer: that variation begets variation. They explain how there is no single ideal personality (as there is an ideal hand or eye, which we all share), but nature instead promotes different personalities.In their recent study, John McNamara, Philip Stephens, and Alasdair Houston from the University of Bristol, and Sasha Dall of the University of Exeter, Cornwall Campus, explain how natural selection can prevent individuals in a species from evolving toward a single optimum personality, using a game theory scenario. In their study, the researchers focus on the evolution of trust and trustworthiness. The game scenario they use is a variant of the Prisoner’s Dilemma. First, Player 1 chooses to trust or not trust Player 2. Not trusting gives Player 1 a small payoff, and Player 2 gets nothing. If Player 1 trusts Player 2, and Player 2 is trustworthy, then both players receive the same medium-size payoff. But if Player 1 trusts Player 2, and Player 2 isn’t trustworthy, Player 1 receives nothing, and Player 2 receives the maximum pay-off. In other words, Player 1 takes a risk if choosing to trust Player 2.At this point, it seems that Player 2 should always choose to be untrustworthy, so that he always receives the maximum payoff. However, as in real life, the game is iterative. And – this is the important factor – Player 1 can do some background research on Player 2, and find out how often Player 2 has been trustworthy in the past. If Player 2 has a record of being untrustworthy, then Player 1 probably won’t trust him. This “social awareness” comes at a cost for Player 1, so Player 1 must decide if the cost is worth the information. If a population of Player 2’s has variation in its records of trustworthiness, then Player 1 could learn useful information by learning a Player 2’s history. (Realistic methods of acquiring information include, for example, talking to third parties or observing facial expression.) But if a Player 2 population generally has the same records, then the cost of social awareness wouldn’t be worthwhile for Player 1. Who you gonna trust? How power affects our faith in others In simulations with multiple players, individual patterns of trust and trustworthiness were allowed to evolve freely. By watching simulations of the game, the researchers found that the Player 2 population evolved variability in trustworthiness in response to sampling by the Player 1 population. For the Player 2 population, variation was the best strategy for gaining the trust of Player 1, and then exploiting that trust to maximize their pay-off on occasion. This variation, in turn, meant that Player 1 could gain helpful information by paying the cost of being socially aware – which, once again, provoked more variation in the Player 2 population. The researchers noted several interesting results of the game. If the Player 1 population was too trusting, the Player 2 population exploited that, and became less trustworthy. Dall said the team was pleasantly surprised by two results: that the model predicted behavioral variation in both player types, and also predicted two distinct variation patterns for Player 2’s behavior. “Not only were we able to explain why variation should be maintained as social interactions become more extensive, we were able to explain how discrete behavioral types might evolve in otherwise continuous behavioral traits,” Dall said to PhysOrg.com.As he elaborated, the presence of a few socially aware Player 1’s will not only keep the Player 2’s in check, but also allow for more variation among Player 1’s. “You only need a certain number of samplers to enforce trustworthy Player 2 behavior, and so there will be a limit to the numbers of samplers that will be maintained by selection. Once samplers are common enough, everyone else should adopt unconditional, cost-free Player 1 behavior.” In other words, some Player 1’s will always trust, while other Player 1’s will never trust one another.As the researchers concluded, even though this study focuses on a specific model, the general finding that variation begets variation in social contexts has broad implications for understanding evolution and game theory. Past results in game theory have discovered individual differences in trust and trustworthiness, and now studies like this one help to explain this variation. This study and others also show that evolutionary game theorists cannot ignore the importance of individual variation in their models. Meanwhile, the researchers will continue to investigate exactly why we have different personalities.“More generally, the question of ‘why personality variation evolves’ requires a more complex answer, which we’re only just starting to unravel as evolutionary biologists,” Dall said. “The chances are that there isn’t just one reason, and which particular reason is relevant depends on the context. So far, our social awareness reason is one of the few that has been proposed to explain variation in a cooperative context. Social awareness also appears to work in an aggressive context: individuals adopt consistent levels of aggression to avoid getting in real fights, since if someone can predict you’re going to be aggressive, they will avoid provoking you; individual differences arise via frequency dependence again, as the more aggression there is around you, the less you should bother fighting – this is the famous Hawk-Dove game outcome.”More information: McNamara, John M.; Stephens, Philip A.; Dall, Sasha R. X.; Houston, Alasdair I. “Evolution of trust and trustworthiness: social awareness favours personality differences.” Proceedings of the Royal Society, doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.1182.Copyright 2008 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. (PhysOrg.com) — Although members of the same species share more than 99 percent of their genetic makeup, individuals often have small differences, such as in their appearance, susceptibility to disease, and life expectancy. Another difference, one that has gone overlooked from the evolutionary perspective, is personality variation. Even identical twins can have personality types at opposite ends of the spectrum. The researchers performed simulations of the above game to understand how behavior variation evolves in a population. Player 1 (P1) chooses to trust or not trust Player 2 (P2). If trusted, P2 chooses to take advantage of P1 to gain a higher pay-off, or be trustworthy. The pay-off relation is 0 < s < r < 1. P1’s cost of sampling P2 is c, where 0 < c < s. Image credit: J. M. McNamara et al. ©2008 The Royal Society. 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